Head, Neck, Neurological, Bone and Soft Tissue Cancers
Head and neck cancers
All types and stages of head and neck cancers, including cancer of the thyroid, mouth, tongue, throat, sinus and salivary glands. Advanced skin cancers and secondary cancers that have spread to involve the lymph glands around the neck. Most head and neck cancers begin in the cells that line the mucosal surfaces (moist lining) in the head and neck area, e.g. mouth, throat, and voicebox. These cancers are most commonly squamous cell carcinomas.
Tumours that start in the brain are called primary brain tumours. Some types of brain tumours are benign and some are malignant.
There are more than 100 types of benign and malignant tumours that originate from the brain, spinal cord and meninges. About 70% of all brain tumours are malignant.
- include high-grade astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, glioblastomas and mixed gliomas.
- usually named after the cell type from which they arise.
- in some tumours, the cells are confined to a specific area; in others, malignant cells are also found in tissue surrounding the tumour.
- There are various treatments for tumours, including surgery and radiotherapy.
- most common types: meningiomas, neuromas, pituitary tumours and cranio-pharyngiomas.
- can cause problems by pressing on the brain and spinal cord.
- surgery or treatments such as radiotherapy may treat the tumour.
Bone and soft tissue cancers
- Sarcomas are a group of cancers that start in the bones or the soft tissues (muscle, fat, and fibrous tissues). They are rare tumours, and make up only 1% of cancers in adults.
- Treatment for people with sarcoma is individualised. This means that they type of treatment that someone receives may be different to another person with the same disease because of differences in age, other illnesses, preferences, and the precise extent and nature of their cancer.